Background: India recently launched Ayushman Bharat - National Health Protection Mission - an upgraded version of Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojna (RSBY), which is projected as world's largest public insurance scheme by numbers. The new scheme can certainly draw learning from the former (RSBY) to ensure better reach and success. RSBY has been extensively analyzed for supply-side barriers but sparsely for demand and supply-side barriers simultaneously. Objectives: Through this study, authors intend to determine causality as well as configurations (pathways) of demand and supply barriers that make beneficiary vulnerable even under the scheme. The study explores the interaction of barriers that lead to patient dis/satisfaction, overcharging for a medical procedure and high disease severity among beneficiaries. Methods: The study uses RSBY insurance claim records from 2013 to 2015 backed up by posthospitalization survey of the state of Chhattisgarh, India. It employs a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis to determine causality and configuration (path-way) of parameters leading to the outcome. Results: Provision of medicine emerges as a necessary condition for patient satisfaction. Waiting time did not appear as a necessary parameter of satisfaction. Overcharging the cashless card in case of minor surgical procedures is observed irrespective of beneficiaries' education and occupation status. Urban male and rural female appear to bear high disease severity. Conclusions: Results have implication for policymakers and implementors to recognize the segment that remains vulnerable under the scheme and gain insights on the parameters of patient satisfaction.