We investigate the relationship between growth and deprivation in India, an issue of immense interest. Given that there is continuing controversy over poverty lines, we use a framework that rigorously addresses this issue over a range of poverty lines. Using National Sample Surveys on consumption expenditure, we show that while growth has “trickled down”, it has not benefited the poor sufficiently. Extending this framework, we show that growth has not benefited the poor among disadvantaged caste groups and lower classes adequately. Our findings raise concerns about the “inclusiveness” of Indian growth. We discuss plausible explanations for our findings and policy implications. © 2014 Oxford Department of International Development.