The health of people in a nation is a potential indicator of its development. Over and above that, the job performance of people involved in the delivery and facilitation of health care services within a nation reflects the actual health conditions in it. In developing countries, where a large chunk of the population lives in rural areas, the job performance of grass-roots health care workers gains significant importance in order to ensure effective and efficient delivery of health care services to the masses and marginalized communities. The present study takes the case of Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) in difficult rural areas of India to identify factors that affect their job performance and suggests interventions through which it could be enhanced. Fifty-five ASHAs were interviewed and five focused group discussions (FGDs) were conducted. Additionally, triangulation was done by interviewing other stakeholders, while studying relevant documents. Through content analysis of these interviews and documents, this study identifies the demands, resources and stressors that affect the job performance of these important intermediaries in the health care supply chain (in the Indian context). The study also suggests policy-level decisions that could help in enhancing job performance of ASHAs by managing demands, increasing resources and reducing stressors. Key Messages We have developed a model that delineates the demands, resources and stressors that affect job performance of women workers in rural India. We have studied Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) who are part of community health care sector. However, our findings are applicable to a wider set of similar job roles. We have studied the nuances of factors affecting job performance for a category of community health care workers who are not full-time employees, have received minimal training and work in close proximity of their residence in a closely knit society. We have looked at job performance of ASHAs who are women community health workers, with low educational qualifications, based in rural setting of a developing country. We have recommended policy implications that would aid in enhancing the performance of ASHAs and thus improve the health care situation in rural India.